Monday, March 28, 2011

Good practice of choosing diet food

I like to share good practice of choosing diet food. You may try to impliment this way to choose for your menu daily.

1) Dont eat meat together with milk

2) Dont eat meat with fish

3) Dont eat fish with milk

4) Dont eat chicken with milk

5) Dont eat fish with eggs.

6) Dont eat fish with salad

7) Dont eat milk with fruits

If anyone have implement this or any other ideas, please respond/comment  on my guidelines to choose for our foods.

Sunday, March 27, 2011

How does exercise help you lose body fat?

Regulates appetite:

 Although some people mistakenly think that exercise increases appetite to the point that extra food eaten will negate the number of calories burned, this is not the case. Exercise actually regulates your appetite helping you eat fewer calories.

Increases metabolism:

 Also untrue is the belief that exercise is not worth the effort because of the relatively small number of calories used. For example, walking burns about five calories a minute. Since there are 3,500 calories in a pound of fat, it would seem that you would have to walk 11 1/2 hours to lose a pound. The truth is that even moderate exercise creates an 8-fold increase in your metabolic rate (calorie burning) for hours after the exercise. This residual effect, not the exercise itself, is its greatest benefit of exercise for burning calories.

Maintains Muscle:

 The movement involved with exercise requires you to use your muscles, which causes the necessary physiological changes for muscle to maintain (or even increase) its size and strength. Since every pound of muscle requires 50-100 calories per day to sustain itself and since fat is burned almost exclusively in your muscles, maintaining your muscle is crucial to losing body fat. Without exercise, you'll lose muscle and reduce your ability to burn fat. When it comes to your muscle, you either "use it or lose it."

Increases Fat-Burning Enzymes:

 Muscles have very specific enzymes which burn only fat. Research has shown that people who exercise regularly have far more fat-burning enzymes in their muscles than people who don't exercise. In other words, exercise causes your body to "beef up" its ability to burn fat more efficiently. This means that the more you use your muscles with exercise, the more fat-burning enzymes your muscles develop to burn more fat.

Changes the Body's Chemistry:

Exercise positively affects a number of hormones in your body which are related to fat storage such as insulin, adrenaline, and cortisol. Endorphins, small morphine-like chemicals, are secreted with exercise and can also help reduce fat storage, as well as create a feeling of well-being and alleviate stress. Exercise also speeds food transit time through the intestines to complete the digestive cycle which reduces the chances for digestive disorders and bowel cancer.

The benefits of exercise go way beyond losing body fat. A fit body responds differently to things than a fat body. Things like cholesterol, sugar, salt, etc. simply don't affect someone who's fit the way they do someone who's fat. From a health standpoint, exercise positively affects every organ in your body. Exercise also improves your sleeping patterns, energy level, and overall feeling of well being. The more you do, the more you will want to do as the benefits continue to increase and you get the results you're after. In short, exercise is a must for losing body fat as well as improving the overall quality of life. It will add years to your life and life to your years.

Exercise to Lose Fat

Fat Burning Exercises

Any form of exercise which requires you to use your muscles will cause your body to burn fat and benefit from all the positive changes associated with exercise. However, there are some easy methods to make sure you are burning the fat and becoming more fit.

Type of Activity:

 This refers to the type of exercise you do. The best exercises for burning fat are those which can be done continuously and involve the most muscle groups (especially the large muscles of the hips and legs). Although some exercises are more efficient for burning fat than others, there is no one "best" exercise for burning fat; anyone who says there is, is probably trying to sell you something.

In the simplest terms, exercise simply means increased activity. For beginners, that may mean something as simple as mowing the lawn or vacuuming the house - they both burn calories. The key is movement! To burn fat, you have to use your muscles; and to use your muscles you have to move. In fact, the landmark Framingham Heart Study which monitored 5,000 people for 25 years found that the best results from exercise occurred when people just started moving. Just remember, any exercise is good for you. But, the more muscles you use and the more continuous you use them, the more fat you'll burn.


 This refers to how long you exercise. Twenty minutes is generally considered the minimum amount of time you need to exercise for adequate fat-burning benefit and to increase the growth of fat burning enzymes in your muscles. While it's true that the longer you exercise, the more fat you'll burn, keep in mind that exercise which uses more muscle takes less time to burn the same amount of fat as exercise which uses fewer muscles. Don't worry about the distance you travel while exercising; the time you exercise is what's important, not the distance.


This refers to your level of exertion or "pace" during exercise. Although some people still believe that if an exercise doesn't hurt, it isn't doing them any good, the "no pain, no gain" theory doesn't apply to fat-burning. Remember to think longer as opposed to harder when exercising to lose body fat.
The correct exercise intensity for burning fat is whatever is a moderate, comfortable pace for you. Although monitoring your heart rate (pulse) is a common method of checking to see if you're at the right pace, a simpler method is the "talk test". This involves exercising at a pace where you can carry on a limited conversation without gasping for air at every word. Another method is to simply ask yourself "Can I keep exercising at this intensity for at least 20 minutes?" If the answer is "no," slow down to a point where you can continue the pace for at least 20 minutes.

Remember that as you become less fat and more fit, you will need to exercise at a faster pace to continue to reach the right intensity level (i.e. from walking to jogging). This is a result of your body getting "in shape". For you to continue to progress, your exercise needs to progress also.


This refers to how often you exercise. Shoot for a minimum of 3 times per week with no more than 2 days of rest between exercise sessions. If you want to exercise more frequently, by all means do it; but this depends on how fit you are. It may be just as effective for you to increase your intensity slightly or your duration on the days you do exercise rather than to add another day. Even the most highly trained athletes need a day off now and then.

These guidelines should always be used at a level that's right for you. Ideally, you should try to vary the type of activity, duration, intensity, and frequency of your exercise to add some variety and prevent boredom. This will also help you work different muscles in different ways which will increase your overall progress and prevent your body from becoming accustomed to the same activity each time.

8 Diet tips

1.    Always eat within one hour after waking. You must eat a minimum of 3 meals and 2 snacks every day. Afternoon and late evening snacks are critically important for staying in the Zone. A Zone meal should give you 4-5 hours in the Zone, a Zone snack 2-2.5 hours. You must eat every 4-5 hours after a meal or 2-2.5 hours after a snack, whether you are hungry or not, to stay in the Zone. In fact, the best time to eat is when you aren't hungry. That means your insulin levels are stabilized.

2.    Lack of hunger and clear mental focus are excellent barometers that you are in the Zone. Before every meal and snack always assess your hunger and mental focus.

3.    Every meal and snack starts with low-fat protein plus carbohydrates (eat more leafy green vegetables and fruits and less pasta, breads, grains and starches) and don't forget "good" fats (i.e. olive oil).

4.    A typical serving size of low-fat protein fits in the palm of your hand and is no thicker than your hand. For most females, this is 3 ounces of low-fat protein, and for males, this equals 4 ounces of low-fat protein. A typical snack contains 1 ounce of protein for both men and women. At first, a kitchen scale is helpful to measure the protein portion. You can soon eyeball these amounts at home, in restaurants and fast food take-outs.

5.   Divide your plate in three equal sections. Add the protein portion and fill two-thirds of the plate with fruits and vegetables. Don't forget to add a dash of fat like olive oil. If you like, add a small dinner salad at dinnertime (a great place to add a dash of "good" fats like olive oil).

6.   Zone living is guilt free. If you make a mistake, your next Zone meal or snack will take you right back to the Zone.

7.   Exercise on a regular basis.

8.   Drink eight 8-ounce glasses of water a day.

Saturday, March 26, 2011

Wednesday, March 23, 2011

Obesity : Classification

Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse effect on health. It is defined by body mass index (BMI) and further evaluated in terms of fat distribution via the waist–hip ratio and total cardiovascular risk factors. BMI is closely related to both percentage body fat and total body fat.

A front and side view of a "super obese" male torso. Stretch marks of the skin are visible along with gynecomastia.
A "super obese" male with a BMI of 47 kg/m2: weight 146 kg (322 lb), height 177 cm (5 ft 10 in)
In children, a healthy weight varies with age and sex. Obesity in children and adolescents is defined not as an absolute number, but in relation to a historical normal group, such that obesity is a BMI greater than the 95th percentile. The reference data on which these percentiles are based are from 1963 to 1994, and thus have not been affected by the recent increases in weight.

Tuesday, March 22, 2011

Obesity :Definition

Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse effect on health, leading to reduced life expectancy and/or increased health problems. Body mass index (BMI), a measurement which compares weight and height, defines people as overweight (pre-obese) if their BMI is between 25 kg/m2 and 30 kg/m2, and obese when it is greater than 30 kg/m2.

Sunday, March 20, 2011

Are some people more at risk than others of hepatitis B?

Because hepatitis B is transmitted through blood and body fluids, and especially during sexual intercourse, those most at risk are heterosexual women and gay men who have had many sexual partners, addicts who use intravenous drugs, people who have been tattooed with dirty needles and health professionals who may come into contact with the blood of an infected person. It is important to remember that anyone who falls into any of these groups can be vaccinated.

If I'm a carrier, what can be done to protect my unborn baby?

When you go for your booking visit, your doctor will take some blood to test for hepatitis B. If it shows that you are a carrier, you may be referred to a specialist for advice about diet and alcohol. Since chronic carriers are at risk of liver disease, you should continue to receive follow-up appointments after you have given birth to check on your state of health.

Your baby will be washed thoroughly after he is born to remove all traces of your blood and he will then be treated immediately with hepatitis B vaccine. These precautions almost always prevent the infection from being passed to your baby. If he is not treated, your baby may go on to develop serious liver disease.

There is no risk to your baby from breastfeeding providing he has been given the hepatitis B vaccine. Malaysia is amongst the first few countries in this region to offer free vaccination against hepatitis B for all newborns since 1989.

Would I know if I have hepatitis B?

Not necessarily. Although it is usually easy to diagnose an acute attack of hepatitis B -- because the patient is jaundiced, and his skin and the whites of his eyes have a yellowish tinge -- sometimes the symptoms are simply loss of appetite and tummy pain, which are difficult to distinguish from flu or a mild bout of food poisoning. Once you have had hepatitis B, you could become a chronic carrier of the virus with no symptoms at all (about 10 per cent of women who have had acute hepatitis B become carriers). In the Asia-Pacific region, carriers of Hepatitis B accounts for 5 per cent to 20 percent of the population. In Peninsular Malaysia, it is estimated that 3.5 percent of the general population are carriers.

What is Hepatitis B??

Hepatitis B is a virus that can cause chronic inflammation of the liver. It can also be transmitted to your baby at birth. If you have an acute attack of hepatitis B during pregnancy, or if you are a carrier of the virus, you are at risk of premature labour.

Saturday, March 19, 2011

Cervical cancer/ Cancer Servik: prevention


Gardasil, is a vaccine against HPV types 6, 11, 16 & 18 which is up to 98% effective.
Cervarix has been shown to be 92% effective in preventing HPV strains 16 and 18 and is effective for more than four years.
Together, HPV types 16 and 18 currently cause about 70% of cervical cancer cases. HPV types 6 and 11 cause about 90% of genital wart cases. HPV vaccines have also been shown to prevent precursors to some other cancers associated with HPV.

HPV vaccines are targeted at girls and women of age 9 to 26 because the vaccine only works if given before infection occurs; therefore, public health workers are targeting girls before they begin having sex. The vaccines have been shown to be effective for at least 4 to 6 years, and it is believed they will be effective for longer, however the duration of effectiveness and whether a booster will be needed is unknown.

The use of the vaccine in men to prevent genital warts, anal cancer, and interrupt transmission to women or other men is initially considered only a secondary market.
The high cost of this vaccine has been a cause for concern. Several countries have or are considering programs to fund HPV vaccination.


Condoms offer some protection against cervical cancer. Evidence on whether condoms protect against HPV infection is mixed, but they may protect against genital warts and the precursors to cervical cancer. They also provide protection against other STDs, such as HIV and Chlamydia, which are associated with greater risks of developing cervical cancer.

Condoms may also be useful in treating potentially precancerous changes in the cervix. Exposure to semen appears to increase the risk of precancerous changes (CIN 3), and use of condoms helps to cause these changes to regress and helps clear HPV. One study suggests that prostaglandin in semen may fuel the growth of cervical and uterine tumours and that affected women may benefit from the use of condoms


Carcinogens from tobacco increase the risk for many cancer types, including cervical cancer, and women who smoke have about double the chance of a nonsmoker to develop cervical cancer


Fruits and vegetables
Higher levels of vegetable consumption were associated with a 54% decrease risk of HPV persistence.
Vitamin A
There is weak evidence to suggest a significant deficiency of retinol can increase chances of cervical dysplasia, independently of HPV infection. A small (n~=500) case-control study of a narrow ethnic group (native Americans in New Mexico) assessed serum micro-nutrients as risk factors for cervical dysplasia. Subjects in the lowest serum retinol quartile were at increased risk of CIN I compared with women in the highest quartile.

However, the study population had low overall serum retinol, suggesting deficiency. A study of serum retinol in a well-nourished population reveals that the bottom 20% had serum retinol close to that of the highest levels in this New Mexico sub-population.

Vitamin C
Risk of type-specific, persistent HPV infection was lower among women reporting intake values of vitamin C in the upper quartile compared with those reporting intake in the lowest quartile.[39]
Vitamin E
HPV clearance time was significantly shorter among women with the highest compared with the lowest serum levels of tocopherols, but significant trends in these associations were limited to infections lasting </=120 days. Clearance of persistent HPV infection (lasting >120 days) was not significantly associated with circulating levels of tocopherols. Results from this investigation support an association of micronutrients with the rapid clearance of incident oncogenic HPV infection of the uterine cervix.

A statistically significantly lower level of alpha-tocopherol was observed in the blood serum of HPV-positive patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The risk of dysplasia was four times higher for an alpha-tocopherol level < 7.95 mumol/l.

Folic acid
Higher folate status was inversely associated with becoming HPV test-positive. Women with higher folate status were significantly less likely to be repeatedly HPV test-positive and more likely to become test-negative. Studies have shown that lower levels of antioxidants coexisting with low levels of folic acid increases the risk of CIN development. Improving folate status in subjects at risk of getting infected or already infected with high-risk HPV may have a beneficial impact in the prevention of cervical cancer.
However, another study showed no relationship between folate status and cervical dysplasia.
The likelihood of clearing an oncogenic HPV infection is significantly higher with increasing levels of lycopenes. A 56% reduction in HPV persistence risk was observed in women with the highest plasma [lycopene] concentrations compared with women with the lowest plasma lycopene concentrations. These data suggests that vegetable consumption and circulating lycopene may be protective against HPV persistence

Friday, March 18, 2011

Cervical cancer/ Cancer Servik: Diagnosis

Biopsy procedures

While the pap smear is an effective screening test, confirmation of the diagnosis of cervical cancer or pre-cancer requires a biopsy of the cervix. This is often done through colposcopy, a magnified visual inspection of the cervix aided by using a dilute acetic acid (e.g. vinegar) solution to highlight abnormal cells on the surface of the cervix.

Colposcopic impression, the estimate of disease severity based on the visual inspection, forms part of the diagnosis.Further diagnostic and treatment procedures are loop electrical excision procedure (LEEP) and conization, in which the inner lining of the cervix is removed to be examined pathologically. These are carried out if the biopsy confirms severe cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

Precancerous lesions

Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, the potential precursor to cervical cancer, is often diagnosed on examination of cervical biopsies by a pathologist. For premalignant dysplastic changes, the CIN (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia) grading is used.

The naming and histologic classification of cervical carcinoma percursor lesions has changed many times over the 20th century. The World Health Organization classification system was descriptive of the lesions, naming them mild, moderate or severe dysplasia or carcinoma in situ (CIS). The term, Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) was developed to place emphasis on the spectrum of abnormality in these lesions, and to help standardise treatment. It classifies mild dysplasia as CIN1, moderate dysplasia as CIN2, and severe dysplasia and CIS as CIN3. More recently, CIN2 and CIN3 have been combined into CIN2/3. These results are what a pathologist might report from a biopsy.

These should not be confused with the Bethesda System terms for Pap smear (cytology) results. Among the Bethesda results: Low-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion (LSIL) and High-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion (HSIL). An LSIL Pap may correspond to CIN1, and HSIL may correspond to CIN2 and CIN3, however they are results of different tests, and the Pap smear results need not match the histologic findings.

Cancer subtypes

Histologic subtypes of invasive cervical carcinoma include the following: Though squamous cell carcinoma is the cervical cancer with the most incidence, the incidence of adenocarcinoma of the cervix has been increasing in recent decades.
Non-carcinoma malignancies which can rarely occur in the cervix include
Note that the FIGO stage does not incorporate lymph node involvement in contrast to the TNM staging for most other cancers.
For cases treated surgically, information obtained from the pathologist can be used in assigning a separate pathologic stage but is not to replace the original clinical stage.

Cervical cancer/ Cancer serviks : Causes

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection with high-risk types has been shown to be a necessary factor in the development of cervical cancer.HPV DNA may be detected in virtually all cases of cervical cancer.Not all of the causes of cervical cancer are known. Several other contributing factors have been implicated.

Human papillomavirus infection

In the United States each year there are more than 6.2 million new HPV infections in both men and women, according to the CDC, of which 10 percent will go on to develop persistent dysplasia or cervical cancer. That is why HPV is known as the "common cold" of the sexually transmitted infection world. It is very common and affects roughly 80 percent of all sexually active people, whether they have symptoms or not. The most important risk factor in the development of cervical cancer is infection with a high-risk strain of human papillomavirus. The virus cancer link works by triggering alterations in the cells of the cervix, which can lead to the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, which can lead to cancer.

Women who have many sexual partners (or who have sex with men who had many other partners) have a greater risk.

More than 150 types of HPV are acknowledged to exist (some sources indicate more than 200 subtypes). Of these, 15 are classified as high-risk types (16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 68, 73, and 82), 3 as probable high-risk (26, 53, and 66), and 12 as low-risk (6, 11, 40, 42, 43, 44, 54, 61, 70, 72, 81, and CP6108). Types 16 and 18 are generally acknowledged to cause about 70% of cervical cancer cases. Together with type 31, they are the prime risk factors for cervical cancer.

Genital warts are caused by various strains of HPV which are usually not related to cervical cancer. However, it is possible to have multiple strains at the same time, including those that can cause cervical cancer along with those that cause warts. The medically accepted paradigm, officially endorsed by the American Cancer Society and other organizations, is that a patient must have been infected with HPV to develop cervical cancer, and is hence viewed as a sexually transmitted disease, but most women infected with high risk HPV will not develop cervical cancer.

Use of condoms reduces, but does not always prevent transmission. Likewise, HPV can be transmitted by skin-to-skin-contact with infected areas. In males, there is no commercially available test for HPV, although HPV is thought to grow preferentially in the epithelium of the glans penis, and cleaning of this area may be preventative.

The American Cancer Society provides the following list of risk factors for cervical cancer: human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, smoking, HIV infection, chlamydia infection, stress and stress-related disorders, dietary factors, hormonal contraception, multiple pregnancies, exposure to the hormonal drug diethylstilbestrol, and family history of cervical cancer. Early age at first intercourse and first pregancy are also considered risk factors, magnified by early use of oral contraceptives. There is a possible genetic risk associated with HLA-B7.[citation needed]

There has not been any definitive evidence to support the claim that circumcision of the male partner reduces the risk of cervical cancer, although some researchers say there is compelling epidemiological evidence that men who have been circumcised are less likely to be infected with HPV. However, in men with low-risk sexual behaviour and monogamous female partners, circumcision makes no difference to the risk of cervical cancer

Cervical cancer/ Cancer serviks :Signs and symptoms

The early stages of cervical cancer may be completely asymptomatic. Vaginal bleeding, contact bleeding or (rarely) a vaginal mass may indicate the presence of malignancy. Also, moderate pain during sexual intercourse and vaginal discharge are symptoms of cervical cancer. In advanced disease, metastases may be present in the abdomen, lungs or elsewhere.

Symptoms of advanced cervical cancer may include: loss of appetite, weight loss, fatigue, pelvic pain, back pain, leg pain, single swollen leg, heavy bleeding from the vagina, leaking of urine or faeces from the vagina, and bone fractures.

Cervical cancer/ Cancer Servik: Definition

Cervical cancer is malignant neoplasm of the cervix uteri or cervical area. It may present with vaginal bleeding, but symptoms may be absent until the cancer is in its advanced stages.Treatment consists of surgery (including local excision) in early stages and chemotherapy and radiotherapy in advanced stages of the disease.

Pap smear screening can identify potentially precancerous changes. Treatment of high grade changes can prevent the development of cancer. In developed countries, the widespread use of cervical screening programs has reduced the incidence of invasive cervical cancer by 50% or more.[citation needed]

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a necessary factor in the development of almost all cases of cervical cancer. HPV vaccines effective against the two strains of HPV that currently cause approximately 70% of cervical cancer have been licensed in the U.S, Canada, Australia and the EU. Since the vaccines only cover some of the cancer causing ("high-risk") types of HPV, women should seek regular Pap smear screening, even after vaccination.

The cervix is the narrow portion of the uterus where it joins with the top of the vagina. Most cervical cancers are squamous cell carcinomas, arising in the squamous (flattened) epithelial cells that line the cervix. Adenocarcinoma, arising in glandular epithelial cells is the second most common type. Very rarely, cancer can arise in other types of cells in the cervix.

Thursday, March 17, 2011

Things That Affect Blood Cholesterol

Your blood cholesterol level is influenced by many factors. These include:

  • What you eat--High intake of saturated fat, dietary cholesterol, and excess calories leading to overweight can increase blood cholesterol levels. Americans eat an average of 12 percent of their calories from saturated fat, and 34 percent of their calories from total fat. These intakes are higher than what is recommended for the health of your heart. The average daily intake of dietary cholesterol is 220-260 mg for women and 360 mg for men.

  • Overweight--Being overweight can make your LDL-cholesterol level go up and your HDL-cholesterol level go down.

  • Physical activity --Increased physical activity lowers LDL-cholesterol and raises HDL-cholesterol levels.

  • Heredity--Your genes partly influence how your body makes and handles cholesterol.

  • Age and Sex--Blood cholesterol levels in both men and women begin to go up around age 20.

  • Women before menopause have levels that are lower than men of the same age. After menopause, a woman's LDL-cholesterol level goes up--and so her risk for heart disease increases.

LDL- and HDL-Cholesterol: The Bad and The Good

Just like oil and water, cholesterol and blood do not mix. So, for cholesterol to travel through your blood, it is coated with a layer of protein to make a "lipoprotein." Two lipoproteins you may have heard about are low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL). LDL-cholesterol carries most of the cholesterol in the blood. Remember, when too much LDL-cholesterol is in the blood, it can lead to cholesterol buildup in the arteries. That is why LDL-cholesterol is called the "bad" cholesterol. HDL-cholesterol helps remove cholesterol from the blood and helps prevent the fatty buildup. So HDL-cholesterol is called the "good" cholesterol.

Cholesterol--In Your Blood, In Your Diet

Cholesterol is a waxy substance found in all parts of your body. It helps make cell membranes, some hormones, and vitamin D. Cholesterol comes from two sources: your body and the foods you eat. Blood cholesterol is made in your liver. Your liver makes all the cholesterol your body needs. Dietary cholesterol comes from animal foods like meats, whole milk dairy foods, egg yolks, poultry, and fish. Eating too much dietary cholesterol can make your blood cholesterol go up. Foods from plants, like vegetables, fruits, grains, and cereals, do not have any dietary cholesterol.

Monday, March 14, 2011

Breast cancer: Treatments

Treatment is based on many factors, including type and stage of the cancer, whether the cancer is sensitive to certain hormones, and whether or not the cancer overproduces (overexpresses) a gene called HER2/neu.
In general, cancer treatments may include:
Other treatments:
  • Hormonal therapy to block certain hormones that fuel cancer growth
  • Targeted therapy to interfere with cancer cell growth and function

An example of hormonal therapy is the drug tamoxifen. This drug blocks the effects of estrogen, which can help breast cancer cells survive and grow. Most women with estrogen-sensitive breast cancer benefit from this drug. A newer class of medicines called aromatase inhibitors, such as exemestane (Aromasin), have been shown to work just as well or even better than tamoxifen in postmenopausal women with breast cancer.
Targeted therapy, also called biologic therapy, is a newer type of cancer treatment. This therapy uses special anticancer drugs that identify certain changes in a cell that can lead to cancer. One such drug is trastuzumab (Herceptin). For women with stage IV HER2-positive breast cancer, Herceptin plus chemotherapy has been shown to be work better than chemotherapy alone. Studies have also shown that in women with early stage HER2-positive breast cancer, this medicine plus chemotherapy cuts the risk of the cancer coming back by 50%.
Cancer treatment may be local or systemic.
  • Local treatments involve only the area of disease. Radiation and surgery are forms of local treatment.
  • Systemic treatments affect the entire body. Chemotherapy is a type of systemic treatment.
Most women receive a combination of treatments. For women with stage I, II, or III breast cancer, the main goal is to treat the cancer and prevent it from returning. For women with stage IV cancer, the goal is to improve symptoms and help them live longer. In most cases, stage IV breast cancer cannot be cured.
  • Stage 0 and DCIS -- Lumpectomy plus radiation or mastectomy is the standard treatment. There is some controversy on how best to treat DCIS.
  • Stage I and II -- Lumpectomy plus radiation or mastectomy with some sort of lymph node removal is standard treatment. Hormone therapy, chemotherapy, and biologic therapy may also be recommended following surgery.
  • Stage III -- Treatment involves surgery possibly followed by chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and biologic therapy.
  • Stage IV -- Treatment may involve surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, or a combination of such treatments.
After treatment, some women will continue to take medications such as tamoxifen for a period of time. All women will continue to have blood tests, mammograms, and other tests following treatment.

Breast cancer: Tests & Diagnostics

The doctor will ask you about your symptoms and risk factors, and then perform a physical exam, which includes both breasts, armpits, and the neck and chest area. Additional tests may include:
If your doctor learns that you do have breast cancer, additional tests will be done to see if the cancer has spread. This is called staging. Staging helps guide future treatment and follow-up and gives you some idea of what to expect in the future.
Breast cancer stages range from 0 to IV. Breast cancer that has not spread is called ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), or noninvasive breast cancer. If it spreads, the cancer is called invasive breast cancer. The higher the number, the more advanced the cancer.

Breast cancer: Causes & Risk Factors

Over the course of a lifetime, 1 in 8 women will be diagnosed with breast cancer.
Risk factors you cannot change include:
  • Age and gender -- Your risk of developing breast cancer increases as you get older. The majority of advanced breast cancer cases are found in women over age 50. Women are 100 times more likely to get breast cancer then men.

  • Family history of breast cancer -- You may also have a higher risk for breast cancer if you have a close relative who has had breast, uterine, ovarian, or colon cancer. About 20 - 30% of women with breast cancer have a family history of the disease.

  • Genes -- Some people have genes that make them more prone to developing breast cancer. The most common gene defects are found in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. These genes normally produce proteins that protect you from cancer. But if a parent passes you a defective gene, you have an increased risk for breast cancer. Women with one of these defects have up to an 80% chance of getting breast cancer sometime during their life.

  • Menstrual cycle -- Women who get their periods early (before age 12) or went through menopause late (after age 55) have an increased risk for breast cancer.
Other risk factors include:
  • Alcohol use -- Drinking more than 1 - 2 glasses of alcohol a day may increase your risk for breast cancer.

  • Childbirth -- Women who have never had children or who had them only after age 30 have an increased risk for breast cancer. Being pregnant more than once or becoming pregnant at an early age reduces your risk of breast cancer.

  • DES -- Women who took diethylstilbestrol (DES) to prevent miscarriage may have an increased risk of breast cancer after age 40. This drug was given to the women in the 1940s - 1960s.

  • Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) -- You have a higher risk for breast cancer if you have received hormone replacement therapy for several years or more. Many women take HRT to reduce the symptoms of menopause.

  • Obesity -- Obesity has been linked to breast cancer, although this link is controversial. The theory is that obese women produce more estrogen, which can fuel the development of breast cancer.

  • Radiation -- If you received radiation therapy as a child or young adult to treat cancer of the chest area, you have a significantly higher risk for developing breast cancer. The younger you started such radiation, the higher your risk -- especially if the radiation was given when a female was developing breasts.
Breast implants, using antiperspirants, and wearing underwire bras do not raise your risk for breast cancer. There is no evidence of a direct link between breast cancer and pesticides.

Breast cancer: symptoms

Early breast cancer usually does not cause symptoms. This is why regular breast exams are important. As the cancer grows, symptoms may include:
  • Breast lump or lump in the armpit that is hard, has uneven edges, and usually does not hurt
  • Change in the size, shape, or feel of the breast or nipple -- for example, you may have redness, dimpling, or puckering that looks like the skin of an orange
  • Fluid coming from the nipple -- may be bloody, clear to yellow, green, and look like pus
Men get breast cancer, too. Symptoms include breast lump and breast pain and tenderness.
Symptoms of advanced breast cancer may include:
  • Bone pain
  • Breast pain or discomfort
  • Skin ulcers
  • Swelling of one arm (next to breast with cancer)
  • Weight loss

Breast cancer: definition


Breast cancer is a cancer that starts in the tissues of the breast.
There are two main types of breast cancer:
  • Ductal carcinoma starts in the tubes (ducts) that move milk from the breast to the nipple. Most breast cancers are of this type.
  • Lobular carcinoma starts in parts of the breast, called lobules, that produce milk.
In rare cases, breast cancer can start in other areas of the breast.
Many breast cancers are sensitive to the hormone estrogen. This means that estrogen causes the breast cancer tumor to grow. Such cancer is called estrogen receptor positive cancer or ER positive cancer.
Some women have what's called HER2-positive breast cancer. HER2 refers to a gene that helps cells grow, divide, and repair themselves. When cells have too many copies of this gene, cells -- including cancer cells -- grow faster. Experts think that women with HER2-positive breast cancer have a more aggressive disease and a higher risk of recurrence than those who do not have this type.

Sunday, March 13, 2011

Complications of Diabetes - Diffuse Neuropathy

Diffuse neuropathy is a kind of nerve problem that affects many parts of the body. There are two types of diffuse neuropathy. Peripheral neuropathy affects the feet and hands and autonomic neuropathy affects the internal organs. Autonomic neuropathy can affect a lot of body processes and systems, everything from sexual response in both women and men, digestive problems that cause weight loss, even regulation of body temperature and sweat.

Focal Neuropathy

    This kind of diabetic neuropathy appears suddenly and affects specific nerves, most often in the torso, leg or head. Symptoms can include severe pain in an area of the body, eye and hearing problems or even paralysis on one side of the face called Bell's palsy. Carpel tunnel syndrome is a common symptom of focal neuropathy. This type of neuropathy is unpredictable and most often occurs in older people who have mild diabetes. Although it's painful, it tends to improve by itself without causing long-term damage

How is it diagnosed?
    Your doctor should use a simple screening test to check sensation in the feet. This should be done once a year. You may also have an ultrasound if your urinary tract is affected. Nerve studies or biopsies in which a sample of your tissue is removed and studied are also possible. Your doctor may refer you to a specialist who may conduct other kinds of tests depending on your symptoms and the kind of neuropathy you have.

What is the treatment?    The first step is to bring blood sugar under control. Good control of blood sugar can also help prevent future problems. Your doctor may change, add or adjust medications.
Tips to help
  • Ask your doctor to suggest an exercise routine that is right for you. Many people who exercise regularly find the pain of neuropathy less severe. Aside from helping you reach and maintain a healthy weight, exercise also improves the body's use of insulin, helps improve circulation and strengthens muscles. Check with your doctor before starting exercise that can be hard on your feet, such as running or aerobics.

  • A variety of drugs are being tested for their effect on improving neuropathy including ace inhibitors and aldose reductase inhibitors.

  • If you smoke try to stop because smoking makes circulatory problems worse and increases the risk of neuropathy and heart disease.

  • Reduce the amount of alcohol you drink. Recent research has indicated that as few as four drinks per week can make neuropathy worse.

  • Take good care of your feet.
Why check your feet?
    If you have peripheral neuropathy, your feet are especially vulnerable. That's because one of the symptoms of this kind of neuropathy is a loss of feeling. You should check your feet carefully every day for cuts, bruises and sores because you might not feel a pebble in your sock that's causing a sore or even feel a blister.

    If you notice anything unusual, see a doctor as soon as possible because foot infections and sores can be difficult to treat in people with diabetes. Your doctor should check your feet at every visit and at least once a year. Your doctor should check to see how much sensation you have in your feet.

Foot care tips
  1. Work with your health care team to keep your blood sugar within good range. Click on Benefits of tight control.
  2. Wash your feet every day in warm, not hot, water. Dry your feet well, even between the toes.
  3. Smooth corns and calluses gently with a pumice stone.
  4. Check your feet every day. Look for cuts, blisters, red spots and swelling. Use a mirror to check the bottoms of your feet if you can't see or ask a family member for help.
  5. Keep skin soft and smooth. Rub a thin coat of skin lotion over the tops and bottoms of your feet, but not between the toes.
  6. Trim toenails each week or when needed. Trim the nail to the shape of the toe and file the edges with an emery board or file.
  7. Wear shoes and socks all the time. If you have diabetes, you should never walk barefoot. Wear comfy shoes and always check inside your shoes before wearing to be sure there are no objects inside.
  8. Keep the blood flowing to your feet. Keep your feet up when sitting. Wiggle your toes and move your ankles up and down for five minutes, two or three times each day. Don't smoke. Limit alcohol.
  9. Protect your feet from hot and cold by wearing shoes at the beach or on hot pavement. Wear socks at night if your feet get cold.
  10. Be more active. Plan your physical activity program with your doctor. Click on Exercise tip of the week.
  11. Check with your doctor. Have your doctor check your bare feet and find out whether you're likely to have serious foot problems. Remember that you may not feel the pain of an injury.

Complications of Diabetes - Gastroparesis

What is it?
    About 20 percent of the people with Type 1 diabetes develop this disorder in which the stomach takes too long to empty. People with Type 2 diabetes get it also, but less often. Diabetes damages the vagus nerve, which is the nerve that keeps food moving through the digestive tract. Gastroparesis can cause food to harden into solid masses and can cause blockages and bacteria problems. The fact that the stomach isn't working properly can also disturb the absorption of glucose and make it harder to control blood sugar.

Symptoms of Gastroparesis
     You should let your doctor know if you have these symptoms of gastroparesis:
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • An early feeling of fullness when eating
  • Weight loss
  • Abdominal bloating
  • Abdominal discomfort
How is it diagnosed?
    You may have a test involving drinking or eating barium, a substance that will help your doctor actually see whether your stomach is working properly. You also might eat a food with a slightly radioactive substance that will show up on a scan. This will produce an image that your doctor can see. There is also a test that measures electrical and muscular activity in the stomach. It involves having a tube inserted through the throat and into the stomach. The tube has a wire that can measure how your stomach is working and digesting. Your doctor might also use a kind of scope via the esophagus to look at the lining of the stomach.
    The primary treatment goal for gastroparesis is to regain control of blood glucose levels. Your doctor may re-adjust your insulin level and treat the gastroparesis with medication. Your doctor may also have you work with a dietitian to change your diet, and you may be asked to eat six small meals a day rather than three large ones. Other options are parenteral nutrition which means nutrition will be delivered directly into your bloodstream instead of by eating or a jejunostomy, which is a feeding tube. Both of these treatments are usually temporary.
Several drugs are used to treat gastroparesis, including:
  • Metoclopramide (Reglan) - stimulates contractions of the stomach muscle to move food along
  • Erythromycin - an antibiotic that has similar effects as Reglan
  • Antiemetics - used to reduce nausea and vomiting.
     Your doctor will prescribe medication or change your insulin dosing to help combat the effects of gastroparesis. It is a chronic condition, so treatment is aimed at regaining control of blood glucose levels.

Changes in Eating Habits Can Help Control Gastroparesis
     Your doctor or dietitian will give you specific instructions. Their recommendations may include:
  • Eat 6 small meals a day instead of 3 large ones. If less food enters the stomach each time you eat, it may not become overly full.
  • Try several liquid meals a day until your blood glucose levels are stable and the gastroparesis subsides. They provide all the nutrients in solid foods, but can pass through the stomach faster.
  • Avoid fatty and high-fiber foods. Fat naturally slows digestion, and fiber is difficult to digest.
  • Avoid some high-fiber foods such as oranges and broccoli which contain material that cannot be digested. The indigestible parts will remain in the stomach too long and may form a solid mass called a "bezoar." This can be dangerous if bezoars block the movement of food into the small intestine.

Complications of Diabetes - Diabetic Neuropathy

Diabetic neuropathy is a nerve disorder caused by diabetes. Sometimes it involves numbness and pain in hands, feet or legs, but nerve damage can also affect other systems in your body. Neuropathy can come on suddenly and cause problems with digestion, gastroparesis, heart problems, bladder infections, impotence, weight loss and weakness. Symptoms can come and go. Sometimes problems occur for only a short time.

Who gets diabetic neuropathy?
Estimates are that after living with the disease for 25 years, about 50 percent of people with diabetes have some kind of neuropathy. People with diabetes who smoke, drink alcohol or have poor glucose control seem to have more neuropathy than other people with diabetes.

Tight control of blood glucose has a tremendous impact on preventing this disease. In 1993, the federal study, Diabetes Control and Complications Trial, revealed that tight control, keeping blood sugar levels as close to the normal range as possible, reduced the risk of developing neuropathy by 60 percent. Tight control means frequent testing of blood sugar, basing insulin intake on the basis of diet and exercise, following a diet and exercise plan, and staying in close contact with a health care team whose members are skilled at treating diabetes.

Monday, March 7, 2011

Complications of Diabetes - Heart Disease and Stroke

Heart Disease and Stroke
Having diabetes puts you at increased risk for heart disease and stroke. This is the biggest cause of death for people with diabetes. The disease process changes your body and can make you prone to fatty deposits in your arteries. These deposits can cause a heart attack. Diabetes can also make your blood more likely to clot and this can result in heart attack and stroke. The disease also puts you at risk for high blood pressure, which is a major cause of both heart disease and stroke.

Reducing Heart Disease in People with Diabetes
  • Coronary artery disease -- People with type 2 diabetes are 2 to 4 times more likely to develop coronary artery disease than others. The statins have been found effective in lowering high LDL cholesterol and blood triglycerides in people with type 2 diabetes.

  • Hypertension -- About 40% of middle-aged people with type 2 diabetes have high blood pressure, a figure that rises to 60% in those over the age of 75. ACE-inhibitors are the preferred medications for treating hypertension, because in addition to lowering blood pressure, they also improve the body's response to insulin and slow the progression of diabetic kidney disease. Target blood pressure in people with diabetes is 130/80 mmHg. Based on the results of a major research study (HOPE trial), experts believe that everyone with diabetes - even if blood pressure is normal, should be taking an ACE-inhibitor.

  • Clotting abnormalities - People with diabetes are prone to blood clots, due to the abnormal "stickiness" of their platelets and a lack of certain blood proteins that slow the breakdown of clots. Low-dose aspirin is recommended for its ability to reduce the tendency of the blood to clot, unless you have a bleeding disorder or stomach ulcer. The latest government survey of health and nutrition found that as many as 8 million people with diabetes who might benefit from aspirin therapy are not using it. Only 37% of people with diabetes and cardiovascular disease were taking low-dose aspirin. The percent was even lower - only 13% -- for those with CVD risk factors.

Complications of Diabetes - Hypertension and Diabetic Kidney Disease

Hypertension and Diabetic Kidney Disease
 High blood pressure is a major factor in the development of kidney problems in people who have diabetes. Both a family history of high blood pressure and the presence of the disease seem to increase chances of developing kidney disease.
    Hypertension is not just a cause of kidney disease, but it's also a result of damage created by the kidney disease. Physical changes in the kidneys contribute to high blood pressure creating a dangerous spiral.

Treating Diabetic Kidney Disease
*Intensive management - Tight control of blood glucose has shown a lot of promise for people at the beginning stages of diabetic kidney disease. This means keeping blood glucose levels close to normal. To have tight control, you have to test blood sugar four times or more per day, give insulin on the basis of food and exercise, follow a nutrition and exercise plan and keep in close contact with a health care team that understands diabetes.
*Lower blood pressure - Medications used to lower blood pressure can slow the progress of kidney disease. One medication, an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, has been shown to prevent progression to stages IV and V. Calcium channel blockers, another type of blood pressure-lowering medications, also show promise. Ask your doctor whether you might benefit from receiving an ACE inhibitor. Be sure to monitor your blood pressure. Use to record measurements and track your pressure. Click on Manage High Blood Pressure
*Low protein diets - A diet containing reduced amounts of protein may help. Most Americans eat too much protein, enough to cause harm to people with diabetes. Talk to a diabetic nutritionist or your doctor and ask if you should reduce the protein in your diet.

Complications of Diabetes - eye problems

Diabetic eye disease refers to a group of eye problems that people with diabetes may have as a complication of the disease. All of these diseases can cause vision loss or even blindness. They include diabetic retinopathy, damage to the vessels of the retina; cataract, clouding of the eye's lens and glaucoma, an increase in fluid pressure inside the eye that leads to optic nerve damage and vision loss.

Who gets diabetic retinopathy?Anyone who has diabetes. The longer you have diabetes, the more likely you'll get it. Nearly half of all people with diabetes will develop some degree of the disease. The National Eye Institute estimates that as many as 24,000 people with diabetes lose their vision every year.

How can it be prevented?
Retinopathy can be slowed or even halted by visiting your eye doctor. If you are between 10 and 29 years old and have had diabetes for at least five years, you should have an annual dilated eye exam. If you are 30 or older, you should have an annual dilated eye exam, no matter how short a time you have had diabetes. More frequent exams may be needed if you have eye disease, according to the American Diabetes Association.
Tight control of blood glucose has a tremendous impact on preventing this disease. In 1993, the federal study, Diabetes Control and Complications Trial, revealed that tight control reduced the risk of developing retinopathy by a whopping 76 percent. In people who already had eye disease at the start of the study, tight control slowed the progression of the disease by 54 percent.

What are the symptoms of retinopathy?There may be no signs or, at first there may be few signs of this disease. An annual eye exam is the best way to catch it in its early stages. A doctor can detect the blood vessel changes in the eye that signal the presence of retinopathy. Blurred vision may occur when the macula--the part of the retina that provides sharp, central vision--swells from fluid leaking from vessels.

What is the treatment?
Your eye care professional may suggest laser surgery in which a strong light beam is aimed onto the retina to shrink the abnormal vessels. Laser surgery has been proven to reduce the risk of severe vision loss from this type of diabetic retinopathy by 60 percent. However, laser surgery often cannot restore vision that has already been lost. That is why finding diabetic retinopathy early is the best way to prevent vision loss.

Sunday, March 6, 2011

Diabetes Basics - Diagnosis

The only way you can be sure you have diabetes is by getting a test. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) now recommends that everyone over age 45 should have a fasting plasma glucose test. If test results are normal, the test should be repeated every three years. If you have risk factors for diabetes, you should be tested at a younger age and more often. The high risk factors include:

  • Being more than 20 percent above your ideal body weight or having a body mass index (BMI) of greater than or equal to 27. The BMI is the ratio of weight in kilograms to height in meters squared. Your doctor can give you information on your BMI.
  • Calculate Your Body Mass Index.
  • Having a mother, father, brother or sister with diabetes.
  • Being African American, Alaska Native, Pacific Islander American, Hispanic, Native or Asian American.
  • Giving birth to a baby weighing more than 9 lbs or having diabetes during pregnancy (gestational diabetes).
  • Having an HDL cholesterol level less than 35 mg/dL (HDL is the 'good' cholesterol) or trigylcerides (certain kinds of body fat) greater than 250 mg/dL.
  • Having blood pressure at or above 140/90 millimeters of mercury (mmHg).
  • Having abnormal glucose levels when previously tested for diabetes.
Fasting Plasma Glucose
This is the preferred test for diabetes. To have this test, you have to fast at least eight hours or overnight. You will have a blood sample drawn and examined for glucose. Most people have a level between 70 and 110 milligrams of glucose per deciliter of blood. A level of 126 mg/dl or higher on two tests given on two different days confirms a diagnosis of diabetes. (Previously a level of 140 mg/dl or higher was used to diagnose diabetes, but in 1997, the guidelines were revised because by the time a person got a diagnoses of diabetes with a level of 140 mg/dl, serious damage to the body had often already occurred. By lowering the diagnostic levels to 126 mg/dl, early control of the disease can begin and risk of complications is lower.)

Random Blood Glucose Test
You don't have to fast to have this test, which is sometimes used if symptoms are present. Blood samples are taken shortly after eating or drinking. A blood glucose level of 200 mg/dl or higher points to diabetes, but it must be confirmed on another day with a fasting plasma glucose, an oral glucose tolerance test or another random blood glucose of over 200.

Oral Glucose Tolerance Test
For this test you have to fast at least eight hours and not have smoked or drank coffee. Your fasting plasma glucose is tested from a blood sample. After the test you will be asked to drink a sweet glucose syrup and then your glucose level will be measured from a blood sample taken two hours after you drink the liquid. There can be up to four blood samples taken to measure the blood glucose level. The American Diabetes Association expert committee recommends that this test be eliminated because it is a difficult and time-consuming test.

Glucose Challenge
This is a test your doctor may give you to see if you have gestational diabetes, diabetes developed during pregnancy. You may be given this test if you are age 25 or older, are overweight, have a close relative with diabetes or if you are Hispanic, Native American, Asian or African American or a Pacific Islander. This test is given between the 24th and 28th weeks of pregnancy. You will be given a glucose drink and if an hour later, your glucose is 140 mg/dl or higher, your doctor may suspect gestational diabetes. You may then be given an oral glucose tolerance test.

Impaired Fasting Glucose
Impaired fasting glucose is a new diagnostic category. If your blood sugar is measured between 110 and 125 mg/dL, it means you have impaired fasting glucose. This means your blood sugar is greater than normal, but less than the level of a person diagnosed with diabetes. It's thought that around 13.4 million adults, about 7 percent of the US population, have impaired fasting glucose. It's suspected that some people with impaired fasting glucose go on to develop diabetes. Talk to your doctor to see if exercise and eating a healthy diet will bring your blood sugar closer to normal.

What is Diabetes?

Diabetes is a chronic disease that affects as many as 16 million Americans. For reasons that are not yet clear, diabetes is increasing in our population to the point where public health authorities are calling diabetes an "epidemic" that requires urgent attention.
Of the 16 million people with diabetes, about one-third of them don't even know they have it. Every year, 800,000 additional cases are diagnosed. It affects over six percent of the population now, and it is projected that nearly nine percent of all Americans will have diabetes by the year 2025. Health care costs for diabetes are estimated to be nearly $100 billion per year in the US.
People with diabetes are unable to use the glucose in their food for energy. The glucose accumulates in the bloodstream, where it can damage the heart, kidneys, eyes and nerves. Left untreated, diabetes can develop devastating complications. It is one of the leading causes of death and disability in the United States.
However, the good news is that with proper care, people with diabetes can lead normal, satisfying lives. Much of this care is "self-managed," meaning that if you have this condition, you must take day-to-day responsibility for your own care.

Diabetes Basics - Who's at Risk?

Type I Diabetes
Type I diabetes is more common among whites than Asian, Hispanic, Native and African Americans. If you have a close relative with the disease, you are more likely to develop Type I.

Type II Diabetes
Type II diabetes also tends to run in families. In fact there seems to be even stronger evidence for some kind of genetic cause for Type II than for Type I diabetes. Type II is more common among Asian, Hispanic, Native and African Americans.
Although Type II diabetes usually develops after age 40, about half of all people diagnosed with the disease are older than 55. This may be because as people age, they tend to become more sedentary and to gain weight. Eating too much food and being inactive can make you obese and you are more likely to develop Type II diabetes if you are obese. Obesity is, by far, the greatest risk factor for this kind of diabetes.
Where the weight is distributed seems to be a factor, too. If you tend to have an apple-shaped body in which you store fat around the tummy, you are more at risk for Type II diabetes. Those with a pear shape in which fat is stored in the hips are somewhat less at risk.

Gestational Diabetes
Any woman can develop gestational diabetes during pregnancy, but some women are more at risk than others. Some risk factors include obesity, a family history of diabetes, having previously given birth to a very large baby, a stillbirth, a child with a birth defect or having too much amniotic fluid. Women who are older than 25 are at higher risk than younger women. About 135,000 women develop gestational diabetes every year.

Diabetes Symptoms

Type 1 Diabetes Symptoms:

The symptoms of Type I diabetes often come on suddenly and very severely. They include:
  • being exceptionally thirsty
  • dry mouth
  • the need to urinate often
  • weight loss (even though you may be hungry and eating well)
  • feeling weak and tired
  • blurry vision

Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms

Sometimes, people with Type II diabetes don't notice any symptoms or the symptoms are experienced gradually. They include:
  • blurry vision
  • cuts or sores that are slow to heal
  • itchy skin, yeast infections
  • increased thirst
  • dry mouth
  • need to urinate often
  • leg pain

Symptoms of heart attack